Resources

Ahearn, Raymond J. Japan’s Free Trade Agreement Program. Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade: CRS Report for Congress, 2005.

This report focuses on the Japan incentives for implementing a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. It gives a background on previous FTAs in put in place for both countries that the differences that Japanese and US sectors would have to overcome if they wanted to put a successful FTA in place.

Belderbos, René. “Entry Mode, Organizational Learning, and R&D in Foreign Affiliates: Evidence from Japanese Firms.” Strategic Management Journal 24.3 (2003): 235-59. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This piece focuses most of the entry mode organization, and the significance of entry mode, after a sampling over 400 Japanese manufacturing affiliates. It discusses how because of their late entry though, they suffer some disadvantages.

Chang, Sea Jin. “International Expansion Strategy of Japanese Firms: Capability Building through Sequential Entry.” The Academy of Management Journal 38.2 (1995): 383-407. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

One of Japan’s largest influences in the US market is in technology. This study looks at the process in which Japan’s electronic manufacturing firms entered the United States. The general conclusion to this article is that their success came from their sequential entry and establishment in areas in which they had a comparative advantage.

Cooper, William H.U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy OptionsSpecialist in International Trade and Finance: Congressional Research Service, 2012.

This report summarizes the major previous Japanese US economic relations and delves into prospects for improved negotiations in the future. Cooper explains how these relations are crucial, and ultimately advantageous to be a part of from both sides. Because the report is also very recent, it takes into account some of Japan’s major current events such as their tsunami and nuclear accident.

Custers, Peter. “The Race between Ford and Toyota: Struggle for World Dominance.” The Academy of Management Journal 30.47 (1995): M151-158. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This piece compares the system of US Automotive Ford and Japanese Toyota Motors and their role in the United States. Though both prove similar in that they structure their company with mass production, the piece examines how for Japanese companies, these are the results of deep hierarchical restructuring and changes in external relations to fit the US marketplace.

Cusumano, Michael A., and Akira Takeishi. “Supplier Relations and Management: A Survey of Japanese, Japanese- Transplant, and U.S. Auto Plants.” Strategic Management Journal 12.8 (1991): 563-88. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This article analyzes the results of a survey sent to many Japanese firms, specifically automobile industries that have expanded into the US. They have found that for the most part, the Japanese companies keep their Japanese practices and habits intact thus proving that Japanese companies can be successful outside their homeland without even adapting their management techniques to match those of the US.

Dirks, Daniel. “The Quest for Organizational Competence: Japanese Management Abroad.” MIR: Management International Review 35 (1995): 75-90. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This article focuses on how cultural diversity is often ignored in globalization strategies even though in reality, it is a very important aspect of marketing toward foreign countries. However, Japanese companies, even with their history with internationalization, seem to have still found solutions to incorporating multicultural integration into some of their policies.

Florida, Richard, and Martin Kenney. “The Globalization of Japanese R&D: The Economic Geography of Japanese R&D Investment in the United States.” Economic Geography 70.4 (1994): 344-69. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This piece examines the role of Japanese Research and Development within the sphere of the US, how it has grown in the US, where it is concentrated, and how it impacts the US economy. It also goes into the globalization strategies of many Japanese firms.

Hurry, Dileep, Adam T. Miller, and E. H. Bowman. “Calls on High-Technology: Japanese Exploration of Venture Capital Investments in the United States.” Strategic Management Journal 13.2 (1992): 85-101. JSTOR. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.

Strategic Management Journal has several articles in relation to the globalization of Japanese firms. This article focuses primarily on the expansion of high-tech markets. It helps build an understanding of the strategy Japanese firms have developed in order to expand and how it differs from that of the US.

Johansson, Johny K., and George S. Kip. “Exploiting Globalization Potential: U.S. and Japanese Strategies.” Strategic Management Journal 15.8 (1994): 579-601. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This particle found that Japanese firms tend to have more advanced strategies when it comes to the expansion of their companies in comparison to US firms. It examines why and how these firms have developed these strategies and why they were so successful in it.

Karimi, Jahangir, and Benn R. Konsynski. “Globalization and Information Management Strategies.” Journal of Management Information Systems 7.4 (1991): 7-26. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

This piece is about organizational strategies for companies who are trying to expand globally. It describes how to compete competitively and be active in the world market. They need to align themselves with the evolving technology in the market they are entering.

Kotabe, Masaaki, and Sam C. Okoroafo. “A Comparative Study of European and Japanese Multinational Firms’ Marketing Strategies and Performance in the United States.” MIR: Management International Review 30.4 (1990): 353-70. JSTOR. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.

This piece specifically examines the marketing and production strategies of Japanese multinational firms to European multinational firms that have entered the US marketplace. It then examines if these differences in marketing strategies and product production goals are what leads to the difference in the performance of these companies.

Linowes, Richard G., Toro Nakamura, and Yoshi Tsurumi. “The Japanese Manager’s Traumatic Entry into the United States: Understanding the American-Japanese Cultural Divide [and Executive Commentary].” The Academy of Management Executive 7.4 (1993): 21-40. JSTOR. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.

Though this piece does focus a lot on the cultural division between of Japanese in the US, it also explains the struggles that Japanese firms encounter. It describes the abundance of “built-in cultural barriers” that hinder the growth of Japanese companies in America despite their success in other foreign countries.

Lutz, L. C. “Japanese Trade with the United States.” Historical Encyclopedia of American BusinessSalem Press. Web. 

This article gives insight into the trade balances and friction that have existed with the US overtime. Though it does not go into great detail on the policies themselves, it relates policy changes with large historical events thus giving perspective on the trade a patterns of US Japanese relations.

McGray, Douglas. “Japan’s Gross National Cool.” Foreign Policy 130 (2002): 44-54. JSTOR. Web. 17 Oct. 2012.

This article discusses how Japanese culture has transcended into the US market. While previously, Japanese globalization was thought of mainly on the terms of technology and electronic products, that has now expanded as it now prevalent in our culture and our means of entertainment.  The article dives into all the aspects of Japanese culture that have become a large part of american entertainment and how some of those things maybe differ from the way they were viewed back in Japan.

Simmonds, Kenneth. “International Marketing: Avoiding the Seven Deadly Traps.” Journal of International Marketing 7.2 (1999): 51-62. JSTOR. Web. 17 Oct. 2012.

By expanding their market beyond that of a single country, a firm can widely increase its possibilities but also problems. Marketing is crucial part of any expansion so this article describes the frequently made mistakes by companies trying to make a name in the international market and further, describes how to avoid them.

Trevor, Malcolm. “The Overseas Strategies of Japanese Corporations.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 513 (1990): 90-101. Web. 17 Oct. 2012.

Internationalization has been rapidly growing in Japanese firms for quite some time. This article focuses in on the expansion of Japanese companies from many different angles. From the strategy for the new management system abroad to where money is often invested, this article gives light to the habits of many firms that enter the US marketplace.

Wilkins, Mira. “Japanese Multinationals in the United States: Continuity and Change, 1879-1990.” The Business History Review 64.4 (1990): 585-629. JSTOR. Web. 17 Oct. 2012.

This article is about the deep historical roots of Japanese investments in the US marketplace. It relates these pasts and compares them with more recent forms of expansions within the US and why those surface certain concerns within the international marketplace. Wilkins walks us through the first companies to enter the US marketplace from Japan. He delves into how those companies have expanded since then and how the US public has responded to their expansion over time.

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